Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition in which the bones of the hip joint grow abnormally and do not fit together properly. This leads to restricted hip movement and increased friction between the ball and socket of the hip joint resulting in damage to the joint. FAI can be associated with labral tears, cartilage damage and hip arthritis.
CAM impingement is a condition in which the head of the femur is not smooth and rubs against the socket bone. It occurs due to abnormal growth of the hip bones during a child's growing years. People with the condition who are physically active and involved in certain sports such as cycling, ballet, martial arts, golf, soccer, baseball and deep squatting activities may experience symptoms earlier than those who are less active.
Symptoms include groin pain, hip pain or low back pain. You may have severe pain while turning, twisting and squatting. You may experience a locking or clicking sensation within the joint, and pain after sitting for extended periods.
Your doctor diagnoses CAM impingement by examining your hip, conducting an impingement test and performing imaging studies such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography) scan and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
Initial treatment involves resting, avoiding activities that increase pain, taking pain medications, and performing specific exercises to improve hip movement and strengthen the hip joint. Your physician may recommend arthroscopic hip surgery if nonsurgical therapy fails to improve the pain. Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgery performed through tiny incisions using a special viewing instrument called an arthroscope and special surgical tools. During arthroscopy, your surgeon can repair any labrum or cartilage tears, remove bony bumps or trim off damaged or abnormal parts of the hip bones, facilitating free movement of the hip.